On This Day in 1930: A Behemoth Was Born

On this day – August 4th, 1930 –  a giant marvel of a masterpiece was unveiled on Jamaica Avenue in Queens, New York. It involved a big building, a big parking lot and a plethora of products that extended far beyond what anyone could have imagined before. Aptly named King Kullen, it was King Kong-ish in size and scope and quickly took over an industry in a way only a behemoth of a good idea could.  It was the birth of the super market – the very first large space grocery store that contained not only food items but also hardware, paint, automotive, cosmetics, shoe shine, kitchenware, confectionery and drug departments all under one roof.

Michael J. Cullen (1884-1936)

The brainchild of grocery store employee, Michael Cullen (who spent half of his adult career working at The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company and then grocery retailer, Kroger) imagined a better, larger, less expensive shopping experience that would cut grocery prices in half for the customer and allow more space for the store to sell bulk items in mass quantity. Essentially it is the same concept that our modern American grocery stores still follow to this day.

Before Michael and his big-brained idea came along, people grocery shopped in small pocket stores like this one photographed in the 1920s…

These independent stores definitely filled a need and were vital businesses to the community but they were also very limiting and not very private. Space was an issue for the store owners which meant that many items had to be special ordered for customers on a need-by-need basis,  extending the shopping transaction by days or sometimes even weeks.  Service was also an issue as items were frequently stored up high or behind counters making it necessary for grocery employees to gather specifically what was needed.

This one-on-one buying model may have helped develop customer relationships but it also created lengthy wait times for other shoppers while each order was filled.  Speculation and gossip seeped into the buying process too as the whole store could see (and hear!) what everyone was buying. Combined with the fact that meat was purchased from the butcher, bread from the baker, fish from the fish monger and specialty cans and shelf stable items from the grocery, meant that the whole shopping experience could take hours out of the day.

Refrigerators of the late 1920’s provided enough storage to stock foods for up to a week.

Michael took note of all these clunky patterns, accessed the growing rise of refrigerators popping up in American homes and started jotting down ideas for something easier and faster involving less commotion and less expense. While he flushed out his thoughts he was still working at Kroger. He brought up his ideas to his boss who didn’t give Michael’s thoughts any merit. So Michael left Kroger and opened King Kullen Grocery Company independently months later. Michael knew he had a great idea – the right concept at the right time. He had worked in the grocery business for 28 years at that point, long enough to see where the consumer experience needed improvement and how profits could be made.

By building a bigger store in a bigger space, King Kullen initiated the self-serve shopping concept where all products were in easy reach of the customer with a large quantity of the same item available. So you could zip in and out of the store much more quickly. No more waiting, no more special ordering, no more gossip.

King Kullen also eliminated the idea of credit registry systems, another time sucker, by only dealing with cash transactions. And they axed the local delivery system which for small, independent grocers meant additional employees and additional expense. Combining all these elements – bigger store, easy to reach items, large selection of product and a faster payment system was much more efficient and empowering to shoppers.  Independent groceries were old-fashioned and pokey where King Kullen, in 1930,  was up to the minute modern.

And then there was the significant pricing system. Upon opening, King Kullen boasted that they could reduce your average grocery bill by 10-50% which during the Great Depression years was a major attraction for struggling wage-earners. By offering everything from house paint to ham (the “super” market concept)  under one roof, King Kullen became a one-stop shop. You can see the price difference between Kroger in the 1920’s and King Kullen in the 1930’s in these advertisements…

Late 1920’s Kroger grocery advertisement on the left, 1933 King Kullen Advertisement on the right

Some of the significant savings included:

  • Tea –   $0.29 per 1/2lb at Kroger vs. $0.39/per 1lb at King Kullen
  • Boiled Ham – $0.33/lb at Kroger vs. $0.21/lb at King Kullen
  • Catsup – $0.15/bottle at Kroger vs. $0.10/bottle at King Kullen
  • Whole Chicken – $0.33/lb vs. $0.19/lb at King Kullen
  • Beans – 4 cans for $0.23 at Kroger vs. 6 cans for $0.25 at King Kullen

Finally, by providing a large parking lot able to accommodate a vast amount of cars, King Cullen changed how people shopped. Families went together, some traveling up to 100 miles away from home so they could fill their car with foodstuffs and stock their shelves for a lengthier period of time. The super market also hosted all sorts of product events and giveaways making each shopping trip to King Kullen unexpected and engaging. It was a seamless, adventuresome outing, easy to navigate and fun to participate in.

King Kullen caught like wildfire in the hearts of the American public. Thousands flocked to the new Jamaica Avenue store on opening day, leading a trend that other grocery stores (like Michael’s previous employer, Kroger) noted and then soon replicated. Throughout the 1930’s store after store opened under the King Kullen brand. Unfortunately in 1936 tragedy struck when Michael died just six years after debuting his first Jamaica Avenue store from complications following an appendectomy.

With the help of his wife and his sons, Michael’s legacy and the King Kullen brand continued to thrive. Today there are 32 King Kullen grocery stores still in operation, proving that Michael was a true visionary. The motto of the brand from the beginning was “We are here to stay and to please the public.”  Eighty-seven years later and still going strong, they have definitely accomplished their mission and in doing so affected change across the entire grocery industry.

Just listed in the shop this week is a cookbook published in 1955 celebrating the 25th anniversary of the supermarket. Titled the Silver Jubilee, it contains over 500 pages of recipes utilizing ingredients easily found at King Kullen-sized stores.

It is hard to imagine this being a novelty cookbook now but if you think about having to stop at 5-7 different food stores to pick up ingredients for one recipe you can understand how enormous this concept really was between the 1930’s – 1950’s. We take so much for granted now in the form of food buying and what we expect from the process. The Silver Jubilee really helps us understand the marvel behind the modern just like Michael helped us experience the efficiency behind the industry.

Cheers to Michael and his revolutionary idea and a happy birthday to King Kullen!

Later this month we will be featuring a few recipes from the Silver Jubilee cookbook in our first ever cross country cook-a-thon. Stay tuned for that!  In the meantime, find the celebratory Super Market Cook Book in the shop here.

Mabel in the Market: The Search for a 1920s Doughnut Shop

Somewhere between the 1920’s and the 1930’s my great-grandmother Mabel had a doughnut shop in Seattle’s Pike Place Market. This has been family lore for generations but like other interesting tidbits that lurk around the ancestry closet… a New York City Rockette, an indentured servant, a lost family fortune… there isn’t a lot of information or validation to support this entrepreneurial endeavor. But in a couple of weeks I hope to change all that.

Mabel grew up in Iowa, the youngest child of an 11 member family.  She trained to be a teacher in the rural country schools surrounding her hometown…

Mabel, aged 18 pictured in her teacher’s attire about 1905

But once she met and eventually married William Earle she gave up the teaching profession all together.

Mabel’s Wedding Portrait taken in November 1907, and a photograph of William Earle, unknown date

Earl, as she called him, was a salesman for the National Biscuit Company but he suffered from some sort of health issue that was bothered by the heat of the Iowa summers. So a few years following the birth of their only child, Phillip, they packed up and headed west in a 1917 Model T Ford towards the cool climate of Seattle.

All three of them – Mabel, Earle and Phillip, plus their belongings traveled half the width of the U.S. (over 1800 miles) in this car – the  1917 Model T Ford.

This was 1922 and my grandfather Phillip remembers sitting in the back of the Model T on top of bed rolls and tents, squished between pots and pans and spare tires. It took them 8 weeks to get to Seattle where they eventually settled into the Capitol Hill neighborhood overlooking downtown. William Earle went to work as a foreman at a biscuit cookie factory.  Presumably this would be the time period that Mabel also went to work – in her doughnut shop in the bustling big city market. By 1940 Mabel and Earle would say goodbye to the city sweet treat businesses of factory and farm market to take on country life once again in a move out to the far suburbs to pursue dairy farming. That put an end to the doughnuts at least in the professional sense.

Mabel’s poem to her granddaughter on her 5th birthday written in 1947.

Mabel was a very creative lady – a clever writer, a sketch artist and a baker. We have a few of her recipes in the family cookbooks but no mention of any prized doughnuts and no mention of any experiences running a business at Pike Place Market, which makes for an interesting little mystery.

Depression era photo of Pike Place Market chicken vendors. Photo courtesy of pauldorpat.com and the Seattle Public Library.

 

What must have it been like to be a  female entrepreneur in the early decades of the 20th century? Especially as a newcomer in a much bigger, more metropolitan city and with no professional experience to bolster her confidence? How did a country school teacher become a city doughnut maker? What made her start and ultimately what made her stop? Did she do it by herself or have a partner? How big was her space? What did it look like? What were her hours and how many doughnuts did she make in a day? And maybe most importantly, why doughnuts?!

Pike Place Market first opened in 1907 and quickly became a cross-cultural beehive of people and products offering everything from fresh fish to flowers, art to textiles and practically everything inbetween.  You can feel the excitement in this 1914 ad from the Seattle Star as the market gained momentum…

Advertisement from The Seattle Star April 17, 1914. Photo courtesy of

By the 1930’s, when Mabel was making doughnuts, the market was bursting and bustling with success and sales. There was a sizzle in the air of possibility and potential that must have felt catching and all-consuming. When I head out to Seattle in the middle of June I hope to answer all the questions raised about Mabel and her doughnut endeavor. I hope to be able to walk in her shoes for a time and learn more about what must have been one of the most interesting and intriguing periods of her life. Perhaps a doughnut recipe or two will even be discovered!

Stay tuned for more on this front as I report directly from the Market mid-month. In the meantime, cheers to mysterious Mabel and her doughnuts. Happy National Doughnut Day!

Meet Matilda: The Mid-Century Mixmaster

 

There’s a new gal in the Vintage Kitchen and her name is Matilda. Traveling all the way from 1957, Matilda is part of the Sunbeam Mixmaster fleet that was all the rage back in mid-century America.  Like the popularity of today’s counter-top Kitchen-Aid mixers, if you didn’t have your very own Mixmaster in the 1950’s then you definitely wanted one. This 1956 Christmas ad shows just how drool-worthy they really were…

Pronouncing lighter cakes, fluffier mashed potatoes and more velvety textures, Mixmasters were scientifically tested for proper mixing speeds and outfitted with full coverage beaters which set them apart from other leading competitors of their day. This was ingenious because early mixers often got stuck just whipping up contents in the center of the bowl, but Mixmasters special over-sized beaters worked the entire rim of the bowl as well as the center eliminating the need for home cooks to stop the mixer and scrape down the sides.  It is so easy to take this simple step for granted today but to fully understand the novelty of this ingenious appliance, we have to first travel back to the early 1900’s.

Born from sweaty bread, the first standalone mixer was invented by Herbert Johnson after he witnessed an over-exerted baker with a drippy forehead hand mix a batch of bread dough.  Clearly there was a better, more hygienic way than this, he thought and so he got to tinkering.  Eventually Herbert came up with the Hobart – the first mixer for the commercial baking industry. That was in 1914.

Hobart! Photo courtesy of kitchenaid

A speedy savior for anyone mixing large batches of anything, the Hobart came to be an important helper in commercial kitchens and rapidly shortened the time spent preparing food products for retail markets. It was so effective even the military put them to work.  A decade later home-sized versions named Kitchen-Aids were introduced and women around the country marveled at the speed and efficiency with which they could whip stuff up.

Sunbeam Mixmasters came along in the 1930’s and offered an improvement upon both the Hobart and the Kitchen-Aid varieties – interlocking yet detachable beaters. This meant even mixing and easy clean-up. Early models like this Mixmaster from the 1930’s look squat and a little primitive but they were true engineering marvels in their day.

Photo courtesy of Decodan.

Originally Mixmasters were first offered in white with jadeite mixing bowls but soon  graduated to a range of pastel colors with matching or milk glass mixing bowls. Matilda’s chrome style was introduced in the mid-1950’s and came with two bowls – large and small.

1950s sunbeam mixmaster

Inspired by both the automobile industry and the airline industry the Sunbeam design engineers created attractive models with elegant lines, fin-shaped dials and stylized lettering reminiscent of the latest design trends in transportation.

You can definitely see the car influence on the Mix-Finder dial and front end medallion…

Twelve separate mixing speeds debuted the year Matilda was born which offered the following settings…

  1. Dry Ingredients, Folding
  2. Blend Ingredients, Cookies
  3. Muffins – Quick Breads
  4. One Bowl Cakes
  5. White Sauce – Puddings
  6. Prepared Cake Mixes
  7. Cream Butter – Sugar, Salad Dressings
  8. Whipping Potatoes, Juicing
  9. Whipping Cream
  10. Desserts – Custards, Etc
  11. Icings – Candies
  12. Beat Eggs – Egg Whites, Most Attachments

On the attachment front – Mixmasters also offered a bevy of functionalities. Everything from juicing to funneling, meat grinding to nut chopping could all be accomplished with one base unit and the appropriate attachment. Depending on the design and the decade that they were introduced, some of the attachments proved invaluable and were successfully continued for future designs. Others like the glass juicer were discontinued after a short run due to fragile composition.

But when it came to the main mechanics of the Mixmaster body itself, they proved incredibly well made, thanks to the powerful motors that still hold up to the competition today. Which is exciting news for Matilda. She may be approaching the senior side at 60 years old but she’s still just as capable as ever. As a top of the line lady, she’s worked in some pretty great places but none hopefully will be more exciting or inspiring than her newly attained instructor’s position here in the Vintage Kitchen with us.

New decals coming soon!

For her birthday this year, Matilda’s going to get a little refresher in the decal department as well as a set of replacement beaters. Then she’ll not only be practically brand new but also fully capable of whipping up a whole new century’s worth of recipes here in the Vintage Kitchen. When she’s all dressed up again, I’ll snap a photo so you can see!

Looks aside, lucky for us, Matilda is chatty. In the whirl of her motor she shares the world of past baking endeavors through decades of cakes and cookies, casseroles and creams.  She can’t wait to share her favorite mixtures with you, so stay tuned for some stories.

Cheers to Herbert and Hobert for mixing it all up in the beginning. And a big welcome to Matilda  – the new master of all our mixing here in the Vintage Kitchen.

 

 

Wednesday in the Kitchen – Simple Tomato Basil Tart

Ms. Jeannie is thoroughly lucky to have come from a family of cooking adventurers. Her parents, her sisters, her husband all love to cook and enjoy experimenting with new flavors and diverse ingredients.

When she was small, Ms. Jeannie’s mother taught her the “old-fashioned” way of baking, with recipes handed down from generation to generation. Which meant everything, always, was made by scratch. Cookies, cakes, pies, puddings, chocolate sauce, whipped cream,  every decadent delight was made by our  hands with real, whole ingredients.

Ms. Jeannie’s great grandfather, William Earle aka Grandpa Bumpy, was an excellent baker. It’s his pie recipes that we still use today in our family.

As Ms. Jeannie grew and started her own experimenting, this love of building creations from the mixing bowl up stemmed out into other aspects of the palatte: homemade tomato sauce, chicken broth, pasta, salad dressings, soups, breads…it was thrilling to know that she could indeed make anything she wanted.

One of her most favorite things to make is pie crust. There is something about lumping a few, simple ingredients together in a bowl,  mixing it about and then rolling it out into a delightful sheet of smooth paper-like dough.

There are challenges still though – even after all these years… like that wonderful flip of the thumb that makes a beautiful scalloped edge around the rim of the pie crust.Ms. Jeannie cannot seem to master this for the life of her. Instead she opts for the more rustic, “provincial” style of folding over the extra dough, which creates a very humble look.

Gorgeous scalloped pie crust (not made by Ms. Jeannie!). You’ll see Ms. Jeannie’s rustic style further down the blog. Apple Pie photograph by Summer Owens.

Ms. Jeannie was consistently taught by her mother that  using good ingredients was just as important as using good equipment. Which meant having a good set of mixing bowls, rolling pins , flour sifters and a pastry cloth.  Necessities. Each and every one of them.

Vintage Kitchen Tool Collection from JodysVintage

When Ms. Jeannie was off to college and on her own, she tried to cut a few corners in the equipment department. Using an empty wine bottle as a rolling pin, the wooden cutting board as a pastry cloth and a fork in place of a dough cutter, Ms. Jeannie was off and baking to somewhat satisfactory results.  Sometimes the dough would be tough and difficult to work, flour would get all over everything (almost always on the floor!) and the dough never rolled out perfectly on the square cutting board – usually lopping off one side, making it thicker in that section then all the others.

For years she baked like this – improvising and substituting, working with what she had at hand instead of getting the proper tools.  A pastry cloth – that is really what Ms. Jeannie desperately needed. But she always seemed to overlook this one neccessity when she was out shopping.

Until…two months ago! When she FINALLY she purchased a pastry cloth at the kitchen supply store. It cost $5.00. What are on earth was she waiting for all this time? It was indeed a jubilant and monumental day:)

Ms. Jeanne’s new kitchen darling!

Now, whatever Ms. Jeannie rolls out onto this magic carpet comes out lighter, flakier and more evenly consistent. It is completely marvelous! As it turns out – pastry cloths have been in use for over a century. Because they are made usually from unbleached cotton and/or oilcloth they provide a wonderful non-stick work environment. Seasoned with a little flour and carefully stored, pastry cloths can last for years. Marvelous, says Ms. Jeannie, since it took her years to acquire!

Here is Ms. Jeannie’s latest creation using her lovely kitchen helper… (note the rustic crust!)

Ms. Jeannie’s Simple Tomato Basil Tart

Simple Tomato Basil Tart – Serves 4

1 cup flour

1/4 tsp. salt

6 tablespoons of vegetable shortening

1/4 cup ice cold water

1/2 lb. Farmer’s cheese

4 large handfuls of fresh basil, washed and torn in pieces

2 lbs. organic home-grown cherry tomatoes, washed and cut in half

3 tablespoons olive oil

Salt & Pepper to taste

1. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees. Place the halved tomatoes in a medium size bowl and toss in 3/4 of the fresh basil.  Add the olive oil, salt and pepper and mix to combine. Set bowl aside and let tomatoes marinate while you make the dough.

2.  Now onto the dough. In a large mixing bowl, combine the flour, salt and shortening.  Using a dough cutter (or a fork – in Ms. Jeannie’s case)  mash the shortening into the flour until it forms small crumb-like bits. Add the cold water and combine until dough forms.  Knead it lightly into a ball with your hands. Just until it is no longer sticky. Be careful not to overwork the dough – then it will become tough.

3. Sprinkle a small handful of flour on your work surface (aka the pastry cloth!)  and roll the dough out  as thinly as possible. Place crust in a round cake pan and bake in oven just until the crust is firm but not brown. About 20-25 minutes.

4. Remove crust from oven, add the tomato/basil mixture. Take the farmers cheese and slice in thin chunks on top of the tomato mixture. Carefully mix cheese and tomatoes together with a spoon, making sure not to scrap a hole in the bottom crust. Top with the remaining 1/4 basil.

5. Return the tart to the oven and bake for 20 minutes. Broil for an additional 5-6 minutes until the cheese starts bubbling and turns golden brown.

6. Let rest for 10 minutes before serving.

Serve this with a simple side salad and a glass of white wine (Ms. Jeannie chose a Pinot Grigio) and you have a lovely, light, late-summer dinner!